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POS validation and factor structure
Antunes B, Murtagh F, Bausewein C, Harding R, Higginson IJ; EURO IMPACT. Screening for Depression in Advanced Disease: Psychometric Properties, Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Items of the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015 Feb;49(2):277-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2014.06.014. Link
Bolzani A, Kupf S, Hodiamont F, Burner-Fritsch I, Bausewein C, Ramsenthaler C. Measurement equivalence of the paper-based and electronic version of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS): A randomised crossover trial. Palliat Med. 2023 Mar 1:2692163231157871. doi: 10.1177/02692163231157871. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36856258. Link
Burner-Fritsch I, Kolmhuber S, Hodiamont F, Bausewein C, Hriskova K. Implementing ePROM in specialist palliative home care: the professionals' perspective - a mixed-methods study. Palliat Care Soc Pract. 2023 Aug 6;17:26323524231186827. doi: 10.1177/26323524231186827. PMID: 37560175; PMCID: PMC10408331. Link
Carr AJ, Higginson IJ. Are quality of life measures patient centred? In: Carr AJ, HIGGINSON IJ, Robinson PG (Eds). Quality of Life. London: BMJ Books 2003, pp19-30.
Cooper J, Hewison A. Implementing audit in palliative care: an action research approach. J Adv Nurs 2002 Aug; 39(4):360-9. Link
Costantini M, Rabitti E, Beccaro M, Fusco F, Peruselli C, La Ciura P, Valle A, Suriani C, Berardi MA, Valenti D, Mosso F, Morino P, Zaninetta G, Tubere G, Piazza M, Sofia M, Di Leo S, Higginson IJ. Validity, reliability and responsiveness to change of the Italian palliative care outcome scale: a multicenter study of advanced cancer patients. BMC Palliative Care 2016 Feb 26;15(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12904-016-0095-6. Link
Dzingina M, Higginson IJ, McCrone P, Murtagh FE. Development of a Patient-Reported Palliative Care-Specific Health Classification System: The POS-E. Patient. 2017 Jun;10(3):353-365. doi: 10.1007/s40271-017-0224-1. Link
Gao W, Crosby V, Wilcock A, Burman R, Silber E, Hepgul N, Chaudhuri R, Higginson IJ (2016) Psychometric Properties of a Generic, Patient-Centred Palliative Care Outcome Measure of Symptom Burden for People with Progressive Long Term Neurological Conditions. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0165379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165379 Link
Gomes B, McCrone P, Hall S, Riley J, Koffman J, Higginson IJ. Cognitive interviewing of bereaved relatives to improve the measurement of health outcomes and care utilisation at the end of life in a mortality followback survey. Support Care Cancer. 2013 Oct;21(10):2835-44. doi: 10.1007/s00520-013-1848-x. Epub 2013 Jun 8. Link
Harding R, Higginson IJ, Donaldson N. The relationship between patient characteristics and carer psychological status in home palliative cancer care. Supportive Care in Cancer 2003;11:638-643. Link
*Harding R, Selman L, Aguipo G, Dinat N, Downing J, Gwyther L, Mashao T, Mmoledi K, Moll T, Sebuyira LM, Panjatovic B, Higginson IJ. Validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care in Africa: the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8(10). Link
Harding R, Selman L, Simms VM, Penfold S, Agupio G, Dinat N, Downing J, Gwyther L, Ikin B, Mashao T, Mmoledi K, Sebuyira LM, Moll T, Mwangi-Powell F, Namisango E, Powell RA, Walkey FH, Higginson IJ, Siegert RJ. How to analyze palliative care outcome data for patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: an international, multicenter, factor analytic examination of the APCA African POS. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013 Apr;45(4):746-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.04.007. Epub 2012 Sep 24. Link
*Hearn J, Higginson IJ. Development and validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care: the palliative care outcome scale. Palliative Care Core Audit Project Advisory Group. Qual Health Care 1999 Dec;8(4):219-27. Link
Hearn J, Higginson IJ. Outcome measures in palliative care for advanced cancer patients: a review. Journal of Public Health Medicine 1997; 19(2):193-199. Link
Hearn J, Higginson IJ. The process of conducting a multi-centre study to validate a core outcome measure in palliative care settings. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1998; 15(4):S10.
Hearn J, Higginson IJ. Validation of core outcome measure for palliative care – the palliative care outcome scale (POS). Palliative Medicine 1998:12;474.
Higginson IJ, Hart S, Burman R, Silber E, Saleem T, Edmonds P. Randomised controlled trial of a new palliative care service: Compliance, recruitment and completeness of follow-up. BMC Palliat Care 2008; 7:7. Link
Higginson IJ, Gao W. Caregiver assessment of patients with advanced cancer: concordance with patients, effect of burden and positivity. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008; 6:42. Link
Higginson IJ, Simon ST, Benalia H, Downing J, Daveson BA, Harding R, Bausewein C; PRISMA. Republished: which questions of two commonly used multidimensional palliative care patient reported outcome measures are most useful? Results from the European and African PRISMA survey. Postgrad Med J. 2012 Aug;88(1042):451-7. Link
Hocaoglu MB, Hepgul N, Tunnard I, Meltem E, Efe H, Ataoglu B, Baybar YL, Kinacigil M, Elsharairi H, Higginson IJ. Towards patient-centred cancer care: cross-cultural validity and responsiveness of the Turkish Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020 Sep 22;18(1):312. doi: 10.1186/s12955-020-01535-5. PMID: 32962717. Link
Hocaoglu MB, Murtagh FEM, Walshe C, Chambers RL, Maddocks M, Sleeman KE, Oluyase AO, Dunleavy L, Bradshaw A, Bajwah S, Fraser LK, Preston N, Higginson IJ; CovPall study team. Adaptation and multicentre validation of a patient-centred outcome scale for people severely ill with COVID (IPOS-COV). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2023 Mar 24;21(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12955-023-02102-4. PMID: 36964550; PMCID: PMC10036974. Link
Horton R. Differences in assessment of symptoms and quality of life between patients with advanced cancer and their specialist palliative care nurses in a home care setting. Palliat Med 2002 Nov;16(6):488-94. Link
Hughes R, Aspinal F, Addington-Hall J, Chidgey J, Drescher U, Dunckley M, et al. Professionals' views and experiences of using outcome measures in palliative care. Int J Palliat Nurs 2003 Jun;9(6):234-8. Link
Hughes RA, Aspinal F, Higginson IJ, Addington-Hall JM, Dunckley M, Faull C, et al. Assessing palliative care outcomes for people with motor neurone disease living at home. Int J Palliat Nurs 2004 Sep;10(9):449-53. Link
Ishii Y, Ito N, Matsumura Y, Aoyama M, Kohara I, Murai K, Takeuchi K, Yokoyama T, Miyashita M, Miyashita M. Validity and reliability of the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale for non-cancer patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2023 May 28. doi: 10.1111/ggi.14603. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37246235. Link
Lerzynski GA, Allen A, Murray SA. An assessment of the ability of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS) in different forms of care to measure palliative care outcomes in different settings. The use of a palliative care outcome measure in cancer patients attending St Columba's day hospice, Edinburgh, and in patients with lung cancer or heart failure in primary care. Z Palliativmedizin 2004;5(19):19-27. Link
Long VJE, Cheung YB, Qu D, Lim K, Lee G, Yee ACP, Guo P, Harding R, Yang GM. Validity and reliability of the English and translated Chinese versions of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS) in Singapore. BMC Palliat Care 20, 40 (2021). Link
Morita T, Fujimoto K, Tei Y. Palliative care team: the first year audit in Japan. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005 May;29(5):458-65. Link
Müller E, Mayer-Steinacker R, Gencer D, Keßler J, Alt-Epping B, Schönsteiner S, Jäger H, Couné B, Elster L, Keser M, Rauser J, Marquardt S, Becker G. Feasibility, use and benefits of patient-reported outcome measures in palliative care units: a multicentre observational study. BMC Palliat Care. 2023 Jan 14;22(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12904-022-01123-y. PMID: 36641450; PMCID: PMC9839955. Link
Murtagh FE, Ramsenthaler C, Firth A, Groeneveld EI, Lovell N, Simon ST, Denzel J, Guo P, Bernhardt F, Schildmann E, van Oorschot B, Hodiamont F, Streitwieser S, Higginson IJ, Bausewein C (2019). A brief, patient- and proxy-reported outcome measure in advanced illness: Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS). Palliat Med, 269216319854264. doi:10.1177/0269216319854264 Link
Namisango E, Bristowe K, Murtagh FE, Downing J, Powell RA, Atieno M, Abas M, Ali Z, Luyirika EB, Meiring M, Mwangi-Powell FN, Higginson IJ, Harding R. Face and content validity, acceptability, feasibility, and implementability of a novel outcome measure for children with life-limiting or life-threatening illness in three sub-Saharan African countries. Palliat Med. 2022 Jun 2:2692163221099583. doi: 10.1177/02692163221099583. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35656638.Link
Neo SH, Tan JY, Sim DK, Ng ES, Loh JKX, Yang GM, Murtagh FEM, Cheung YB. Validity and Reliability of the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale in Asian Heart Failure Patients. Palliat Med Rep. 2022 Nov 21;3(1):287-295. doi: 10.1089/pmr.2022.0029. PMID: 36479550; PMCID: PMC9712046. Link
Osborne TR, Ramsenthaler C, Schey SA, Siegert RJ, Edmonds PM, Higginson IJ. Improving the assessment of quality of life in the clinical care of myeloma patients: the development and validation of the Myeloma Patient Outcome Scale (MyPOS). BMC Cancer. 2015 Apr 14;15:280. Link
Osborne TR, Ramsenthaler C, Siegert R, Edmonds P, Schey S, Higginson IJ. Health related quality of life instruments for use in people with multiple myeloma: a systematic literature review. Haematologica 2011;96(s2):366.
Paiva BSR, Valentino TCO, Mingardi M, Oliveira MA, Franco JO, Salerno MC, Palocci H, Melo TC, Paiva CE. Translation, Validity and Internal Consistency of the Quality of Dying and Death Questionnaire for Brazilian families of patients that died from cancer: a cross-sectional and methodological study. Sao Paulo Med J. 2022 Nov 21:S1516-31802022005028201. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2022.0085.R2.09082022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36417658. Link
Ramsenthaler C, Siegert RJ, Higginson IJ. A Checklist for Reporting Factor Analysis in Palliative Care Research. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care A22 2011; 1(Suppl 1):A2–A25. Link
Sakurai H, Miyashita M, Morita T, Naito AS, Miyamoto S, Otani H, Nozato J, Yokomichi N, Imai K, Oishi A, Kizawa Y, Matsushima E. Comparison between patient-reported and clinician-reported outcomes: Validation of the Japanese version of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for staff. Palliat Support Care. 2021 Mar 5:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S1478951521000018. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33666153 Link
Sandham MH, Medvedev O, Hedgecock E, Higginson IJ, Siegert RJ. A Rasch Analysis of the Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018 Nov 26; pii: S0885-3924(18)31088-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.11.019. [Epub ahead of print] Link
Schildmann EK, Groeneveld EI, Denzel J, Brown A, Bernhardt F, Bailey K, Guo P, Ramsenthaler C, Lovell N, Higginson IJ, Bausewein C, Murtagh FE. Discovering the hidden benefits of cognitive interviewing in two languages: The first phase of a validation study of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale. Palliat Med.2016;30(6):599-610. Link
Seipp H, Haasenritter J, Hach M, Becker D, Schütze D, Engler J, Bösner S, Kuss K. State-wide implementation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in specialized outpatient palliative care teams (ELSAH): A mixed-methods evaluation and implications for their sustainable ?use. BMC Palliat Care. 2022 Dec 2;21(1):216. doi: 10.1186/s12904-022-01109-w. PMID: 36461081. Link
Siegert RJ, Gao W, Walkey FH, Higginson IJ. Psychological well-being and quality of care: a factor-analytic examination of the palliative care outcome scale. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010 Jul;40(1):67-74. Link
Sirati Nir M, Rassouli M, Ebadi A, Moosavi S, Pakseresht M, Hasan Shiri F, Souri H, Nasiri M, Karami M, Fereidouni A, Barasteh S. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS) in Adult Patients With Cancer. Front Psychol. 2022 Apr 28;13:858684. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.858684. PMID: 35602695; PMCID: PMC9122042.Link
Slater A, Freeman E. Patients' views of using an outcome measure in palliative day care: a focus group study. Int J Palliat Nurs 2004 Jul;10(7):343-51. Link
Sleeman KE, Higginson IJ. A psychometric validation of two brief measures to assess palliative need in patients severely affected by multiple sclerosis. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013 Sep;46(3):406-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.08.007. Epub 2012 Nov 27. Link
Spichiger F, Volken T, Larkin P, Meichtry AA, Koppitz A. Inter-rating reliability of the Swiss easy-read integrated palliative care outcome scale for people with dementia. PLoS One. 2023 Aug 2;18(8):e0286557. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286557. PMID: 37531385; PMCID: PMC10395940. Link
Stromgren AS, Groenvold M, Pedersen L, Olsen AK, Sjogren P. Symptomatology of cancer patients in palliative care: content validation of self-assessment questionnaires against medical records. Eur J Cancer 2002 Apr;38(6):788-94. Link
Szeliga M, Kotlinska-Lemieszek A, Jagielski P, Jaroszewski W, Kuzmicz I, Stachnik K, Feit J, Deskur-Smielecka E, Gradalski T. Psychometric validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale in Polish (IPOS-Pol). Palliat Support Care. 2021 Sep 28:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S1478951521001176. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34579798. Link
Wilson R, Hepgul N, Saha RA, Higginson IJ, Gao W (2019). Symptom dimensions in people affected by long-term neurological conditions: a factor analysis of a patient-centred palliative care outcome symptom scale. Sci Rep, 9(1), 4972. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41370-3. Link
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